Turkey , officially the Republic of Turkey Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti , is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits).
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is the capital of Turkey, while Istanbul (the former imperial capital) is the country’s largest city and leading economic, cultural and historic center. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country’s citizens identify as Turks. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
The territory of modern Turkey has been inhabited by diverse civilizations at various points in history, including the Hattians, Hittites, Assyrians, Lydians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, Armenians and Persians. Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued during the Roman and Byzantine eras.
The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 has been regarded by historians as the decisive event which led to the establishment of a Turkish homeland in Anatolia. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities.
Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars.
In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmud II and his successor Abdülmecid I started a period of modernisation called Tanzimat in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy, along with the emancipation of all citizens.
In 1913, a coup d’état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states.
The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government.
Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been effectively stopped by the EU in 2017 due to “Turkey’s path toward autocratic rule”.
Turkey’s economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history. Turkey is a secular, unitary, presidential republic.
Bodrum a picturesque town with pretty cottages and incredible nightlife. You will find many little resorts nestling up to the town including Gumbet. Izmir, was apparently the location of ancient Troy but these days you are more likely to find many English friendly resorts such as Kusadasi.
On the Mediterranean coast, Antalya offers the contrast between the historic town and sumptuous beaches with resorts such as Alanya and Side proving to be consistently popular with visitors from across the world. Dalaman offers something for everyone from the buzzing bars of Marmaris to the bustling town of Fethiye, which offers a slice of modern Turkish life.
Olu Deniz is famous for its stunning beach & mountain range nearby you will find a National Park giving you an option to recuperate when beach inactivity gets too much while sophisticated Icmeler offers great nightlife and beach life.
Where Europe meets Asia, you will find that Turkey reflects the influences that both continents has had upon its culture in unique and surprising ways. It is also renowned for golden, sandy beaches, crystal-clear water and a popular night-life, as well as ancient ruins and historical buildings.
Turkey has over 5,000 miles of coastline to choose from. Nestled against the Black Sea, The Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; all are renowned for their cleanliness, their warmth and the abundance of marine-life that they host.
When you travel to Turkey dont forget to sample the local cuisine. Mouth-watering smells drift across the pottery-strewn hills at meal-times and you could find yourself enjoying a leisurely dinner of a variety of world-famous kebabs, fresh fish grilled on a barbecue or pilav: a traditional rice dish that is said to be un-cookable outside of Turkey. And if you are feeling brave, you could try a glass of the local anise-based lions drink or Raki, as we know it.